Women-in-Engineering (WiE) Session

Foreword

Prof. Abhilasha Mishra & Dr. Hema Singh

InCAP2018 recognizes contributions of prominent WiE in India and provides a platform for attendees to learn upcoming technologies, innovations and getting connected and network with the people belonging to their own domain. The conference has also planned tutorials, keynote, & invited talks in the broad areas of antennas, microwave & propagation. InCAP will celebrates the vibrant & diverse community of women scientists and engineers. This session includes invited talks from 9 women from academia and industry sharing their research experiences and contributions. It is open for women and men.

Connectivity is the essence of communication and technology driven connectivity has been the greatest achievement of modern society; first vehicle of which was the wired technologies that connected places. The evolution of the wireless mobile technologies connected was a step ahead to connect the people one-on-one. These formed the waves of development. We are now in the throes of the third wave of the connectivity technology that connects things many times the number of things as people. That’s the potential of the much discussed internet of things (IoT). The defining feature of such emergent technology is the support infrastructure called the 5th generation network standards known as 5G. 5G promises of increased information bandwidth and faster response times (low latency) for real-time wireless control with minimal power consumption. This development is deeply rooted in Antenna & Microwave engineering. It is the bedrock of mobile connectivity. But it has its own challenges to face, mostly in areas of design where shared thinking and team work on the semiconductor technology and infrastructure is highly desired to achieve this; with a rider that such ideas should not ignoring the commercial viability. That will define the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC), and routing layers of future 5G networks. That brings into focus the creativity, innovation and diversity to be shown by the Antenna & Microwave engineers. It is heartening to note that an increasing number of women engineers are evincing interest in the field and are making significant contributions.

List of speakers include Dr. Chandrika Sudhendra Scientist G, Group Director, ADE, Bangalore, Dr.Beenamole K.S. Scientist F, DRDO-LRDE, Bangalore, Dr. Balamati Choudhury Scientist, Centre for Electromagnetics, CSIR-NAL, Bangalore, Dr. Soni Singh, DST SERB Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Dr. Jigyasa Sharma, UGC Post-Doctoral Fellow, ECE Department, Delhi Technological University, Delhi Dr. Latha Christie Scientist 'G', DRDO, Jalahalli, Bangalore - 560013, Dr. Runa Kumari Assistant Professor, EEE, BITS-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Dr. Naina Narang Assistant Professor, School of Computing and IT, Manipal University, Jaipur and Ms. Vinisha C.V, Ph.D. student, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Kochi (IEEE Student member).

At the end of the talks, the organizers will coordinate a panel discussion with all the speakers about their views on WiE and take questions from the attendees. Lunch will be served during this session and plan to attend and network.

Dr. Abhilasha Mishra

Biography

Dr. Abhilasha Mishra is Associate Professor at Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Aurangabad. She has completed post graduate degree from Government Engineering College Aurangabad & received her Ph. D. degree from North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon in Microstrip Antenna Design for Mobile Communication. She is Central Coordinator of PG Programme, MIT.

She has published numerous research papers in various national and international journals. Her research interests are Microstrip Antenna Design, Artificial Neural Networks, and Genetic Algorithm.

Dr. Mishra is the Senior IEEE Member & IETE Fellow Member, also worked as the former head of E&TC engineering department at MIT.

She has received a National award, IETE Prof. S. N. Mitra Memorial Award 2013 for outstanding contributions in Antenna Research and creating awareness about antenna technology in Marathwada region. Dr. Mishra has organized various international conferences like IEEE Indian Antenna Week 2013 & IEEE Applied ElectroMagnetics Conference (AEMC) 2017.
























Dr. Hema Singh

Biography

Dr. Hema Singh is working as Principal Scientist in Centre for Electromagnetics, National Aerospace Laboratories (CSIR-NAL), Bangalore, India.

She received Ph.D. degree in Electronics Engineering from IIT-BHU, Varanasi India in Feb. 2000. For the period 1999-2001, she was Lecturer in Physics at P.G. College, Kashipur, Uttaranchal, India. She was a Lecturer in EEE of Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS), Pilani, Rajasthan, India, for the period 2001-2004. She joined CSIR-NAL as Scientist in January 2005.

She has been a member of IEEE-Industry Initiative Committee, IEEE, IET, IETE, Indian Society for Advancement of Material and Process Engineering (ISAMPE), and Aeronautical Society of India. Presently she is a panel member of Project Guidance cum Review Committee (PGRC) of Common Research & Technology Development Hub (CRTDH) at Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Uttarakhand in the sector of New Materials under the BIRD-CRF scheme of DSIR.

Her focus area of research is indigenous development of stealth technology, one of the critical challenges in the country’s self-reliance in strategic sector. Moreover, phased arrays conformal to the platform are the present era requirement in view of stealth applications along with support to airborne/ ground MTI radar and SAR for ISR mission applications. These advanced RF/IR/Optical sensors coupled with high-speed signal processing modules and algorithms provide the information beyond LOS. Dr. Singh is working towards design and development of low RCS low-profile phased array. She has been working on Active RCS reduction, which relates to the real-time RCS reduction and control of aerospace structures. The antenna array mounted over a platform actively adapts the pattern in coherence with the overall structural RCS of the platform. Other contributions of Dr. Singh includes EM analysis of propagation in an indoor environment for Boeing USA, HIS-based phased array design, RCS estimation of electrically large structures, and conformal arrays. She has authored twelve books, one book chapter, seven software copyrights, and around 260 research papers and technical documents in these research areas.

Research Interests

Computational Electromagnetics, Radar cross section (RCS) studies, Active RCS reduction, Adaptive array processing towards pattern synthesis and probe suppression, RCS estimation and control of phased arrays, EM design and analysis of Radar Absorbing Structures (RAS), Plasma-based RCS reduction, antenna-radome analysis

List of Speakers for WiE and Abstracts

Talk # 1 : EM materials for aircraft/UAV stealth applications

Dr. Chandrika Sudhendra
Sc. G, Group Director, ADE, Bangalore

Abstract: Radar stealth is crucial for low observability in air vehicles designed for stealth. Radar detectability is quantified by its RCS. RCS is the property of a target and depends on the target’s size, shape and materials and is a strong function of the frequency, angles of incidence and polarization of the impinging EM wave. RCS reduction-RCSR is crucial in reducing detectability by the enemy radar and RCS constitutes the EM signature of the air vehicle target. Passive RCSR design techniques of an air-vehicle designed primarily for stealth essentially involve application of radar absorbing materials (RAM) designed and developed as radar absorbing structures (RAS), frequency selective surfaces (FSS) based stealth radomes and antennas designed for low RCS.

In this talk, EM design, modelling, simulation, development and RCS measurements of radar absorbers, stealth radomes and low RCS antennas for air vehicle stealth applications are explained. Unique challenges in EM design are discussed and successful indigenous development of novel UWB radar absorbing structures with weight and thickness constraints are elucidated. EM ‘Design for fabrication’ approaches and virtual prototyping using 3D EM simulation software, realization using standard PCB and composites’ fabrication process and final design verification by RCS measurements is illustrated with hardware photographs. It is noted that stealth technology is categorized as critical technology and it is highly imperative that sustained efforts in indigenous development is crucial in realizing self-sufficiency in stealth technology.

Talk # 2 : Recent Trends in Radar Antenna Technology

Dr. Beenamole K.S.
Scientist F, DRDO-LRDE, Bangalore

Abstract: Radar antenna technology has gone through several changes commensurate with the evolution of complex radar systems over the last few decades. The present paper gives an overview of the radar antenna technology indigenously developed for different types of military radar applications. The antenna technologies include reflectors, slotted waveguide arrays, dipole arrays, microstrip patch arrays and hybrid antenna arrays. Technological challenges for antennas like active electronically scanned antenna and multibeam antenna with digital beam forming will also be discussed.

Talk # 3 : Electromagnetics: From Teaching to Application in Aerospace

Dr. Balamati Choudhury
Scientist, Centre for Electromagnetics, CSIR-NAL, Bangalore

Abstract: The extraordinary properties of electromagnetic waves and the potential day-to-day life applications has made electromagnetics as the foundation course for all engineering applications. The mathematical analysis, visualization in higher dimensions has made this subject less understandable to the general mass of students. Hence it is required to adopt modern technologies to teach electromagnetics in conjunction with sufficient examples. An approach of teaching electromagnetics from aerospace application point of view will be the essence of the presentation, with a focus on the opportunities available of for women engineers in the field of aerospace.

Talk # 4 : Microwave Antennas for Hyperthermia Treatment of Cancer

Dr. Soni Singh
DST SERB Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Abstract: Despite remarkable progress in cancer research, cancer continues to remain the subject of research interest for the scientists and engineers throughout the world. A therapeutic technique that has received attention in recent years is hyperthermia. Hyperthermia (also called thermal therapy or thermotherapy) is a type of cancer treatment in which body tissue is exposed to high temperatures. The focusing ability of microwave energy has aroused considerable research interest in its bio-medical applications including hyperthermia for many years. During hyperthermia, the temperature of cancerous cells is elevated by a few degrees in the range 41 – 45°C, while temperature required for normal tissue is less than 41°C. This is generally provided by external microwave applicators operating in the ISM bands like 434, 915 or 2450 MHz, which are designed and optimized to non-invasively couple the microwave energy through skin to kill cancerous cells. The concepts involved in the design of a microwave antenna for hyperthermia application are somewhat different from those of an antenna for other applications. For example, some well-known parameters of typical antennas, such as the radiation pattern, which is defined in the antenna’s far field region have minor practical value, while near fields are more important for coupling EM energy into biological systems. Since biological systems have high dielectric constants, the antennas for coupling EM energy into them must be designed differently from those radiating in free space. To-date, different types of antenna applicators at microwave frequencies such as waveguides/horn antennas/conformal antennas have been reported in the literature for hyperthermia. Researchers are continuing to refine the existing waveguide/horn/conformal antenna applicators and devise better applicators so that these systems can provide enhanced heating depth in the medium to treat tumors at greater depth. The present talk is motivated in part by discussing the design of efficient, practical, non-invasive, direct-contact horn antennas/conformal antenna as hyperthermia applicators, which can provide greater penetration depth in bio-medium/bio-media, have the focusing ability and/or remain compatible with the curved portion of the human body.

Talk # 5 : Metamaterial inspired substrate integrated waveguide components: Opportunities and challenges from microwaves to THz

Dr. Jigyasa Sharma
UGC Post-Doctoral Fellow, ECE Department, Delhi Technological University, Delhi

Abstract: The Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) stands as a cost-effective, high performance, and reliable technology for designing and developing microwave, millimeter wave and terahertz components. Specifically, for microwave and millimeter wave bands, over the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the development of SIW based component such as antennas, filters, combiners etc. For the terahertz frequencies also SIW is a suitable candidate due to its ease of integration in planar form and low-loss characteristics. The term metamaterial is broadly used to refer to any engineered discrete media for maneuvering electromagnetic properties to achieve new physically realizable responses. Given their potential miniaturization capabilities, many metamaterial inspired designs such as Split ring resonator (SRR), Complimentary Split ring resonator (CSRR) and Composite Right/Left Handed (CRLH) structures have been applied to the SIW. In this interaction we will briefly review the main properties of SIW and the technology in its theoretical and experimental characterization. Following which the interaction will evaluate the development of metamaterial inspired SIW components as well as state of the art concepts and designs. Furthermore a number of potential applications of metamaterial inspired SIW components will be discussed from microwave to THz, providing in each case a critical assessment of the benefits and limitations.

Talk # 6 : Terahertz Radiation – Sources & Applications

Dr. Latha Cristie
Scientist 'G', DRDO, Jalahalli, Bangalore - 560013, India

Abstract: Terahertz (THz) radiation has the characteristics of both visible light and microwaves as THz falls between the microwaves and the optical region of the EM spectrum (300 GHz to 3 THz). THz remained obscure and least explored for a long time. However, over the last two decades, this region is widely exploited, and the global market for THz radiation devices has reached around $57.3 million in 2017. THz radiation has many promising applications in the area of spectroscopy; in high-bandwidth communication for transferring huge files wirelessly; in security and defence where one can detect bombs and concealed weapons and identify harmful substances from a distance, and in non-destructive testing for security and quality control. Space-based remote sensing that operates in a near-vacuum atmosphere uses THz spectrometers for investigating the chemical compositions of the interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres. Around 98% of the photons released since the big bang resides in the THz band. THz radiation can also be used for cancer screening, brain imaging, tumor detection, and full-body scanning as it would yield much more detailed pictures than any existing technology while being completely safe. This is because THz radiation is non-ionizing radiation; its photons are not energetic enough to knock off the electrons from atoms and molecules in human tissues that can trigger some harmful chemical reactions. Though many applications are put forward, there is a gap in technology in generating and detecting THz radiation due to constraints like size, cost, operating temperature and the power level needed to overcome atmospheric attenuation referred to as “terahertz gap." However, recently, the performances of these sources and detectors are significantly being enhanced so that they will now have higher output powers, narrower pulses (in both the time and frequency domains) and wider frequency ranges. Some of the THz sources are -Vacuum Electron Devices like the backward wave oscillators, and the folded waveguide TWT; Optical devices like quantum cascade lasers, and optically pumped lasers and the solid-state devices like harmonic multipliers, transistors and MMICs. Vacuum devices give the highest average power among the sources. The main problems are the low conversion efficiency, high power densities, and the fabrication issues due to the small size of the device components. Recently significant improvements have taken place, and a micro-fabricated vacuum device can deliver around a milli-watt at 650 GHz, and still higher powers are possible by using multi-beam and sheet-beam devices.

Talk # 7 : Low Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Antenna for Biomedical Applications

Dr. Runa Kumari
Assistant Professor, EEE, BITS-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

Abstract: Antenna design for different application is an extremely trending topic for research interest. For biomedical and mobile communication applications the standards of FCC should be followed to maintain SAR values. “SAR” i.e. Specific Absorption Rate is a measure of electromagnetic energy absorbed by biological tissue mass when exposed to the radiating device. Thus it becomes very important to investigate some design aspects of the antenna so as to reduce the radiation responsible for SAR without degrading the signal strength. Medical applications include telemetry system for implanted devices in the human body, hyperthermia therapy, medical imaging etc. This presentation will include Few methods for the development of low specific absorption rate (SAR) antennas inside portable terminals of Biomedical systems.

Talk # 8 : Computational Modeling and Measurement for RF Specific Absorption Rate

Dr. NainaNarang
Assistant Professor, School of Computing and IT, Manipal University, Jaipur
Email: naina.narang@jaipur.manipal.edu

Abstract:Computational science also called as scientific computing or scientific computation, is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems. The algorithms, numerical or non-numerical modeling and simulation software are developed to solve the peculiar real world problems. For instance, specific absorption rate(SAR), a parameter most important for compliance testing of wireless communication devices can be analytically calculated and simulated without having the need for exposing the actual human body to the radio frequency. Additionally, the applicability of SAR extends from compliance of wireless communication devices to biomedical applications such as microwave or RF heating, ablation and hyperthermia techniques used in ‘radiation oncology’ where localized thermal effect of RF energy, quantified in terms of SAR, is used to target and kill the cancer or tumor cells with the help of conducting nanoparticles. The interplay between nanoparticle dynamics and radiofrequency may generate new, interesting physics which can be simulated using customized numerical solutions. The realization of SAR profile for such applications can be achieved using various methodologies such as conventional numerical techniques including the finite element method (FEM), method of moment (MoM) and hybridized solutions. On these lines, I have theoretically investigated the influence of single gold nanoparticle in tissue equivalent liquid when irradiated by a plane wave, through FEM and MoM solution of electromagnetic partial differential equations, in a 2D geometry

Talk # 9 : Antenna – Radome interaction studies

Ms.Vinisha C.V.
Ph.D. student, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Kochi (IEEE student member)

Abstract:Radomes- the radar domes, are defined as electromagnetic windows, consisting of covers or housings that serve to protect an antenna from damage and environmental conditions, or modified metallic surfaces such as to permit antennas to radiate. They are required to have the necessary structural strength, and be so designed as not to exceed some specified maximum deterioration in the electromagnetic performance of the antenna under operational conditions. Ideally, the radome is radio frequency (RF) transparent so that it does not degrade the electrical performance of the enclosed antenna in any way. Radomes find wide applications in ground, maritime, terrestrial (ground), vehicular, aircraft, and missile electronic systems. Airborne radomes will be given the key importance in this talk. Modern airborne radomes have very stringent electromagnetic (EM) performance requirements. Hence novel techniques have to be used in the EM design of airborne radomes to meet these requirements. In conventional radome wall configurations, the achieved EM performance characteristics such as high transmission efficiency, low cross-polarization levels, and low bore sight error, etc. is not satisfactory over a wide range of incidence angles. Further enhancement of radome performance parameters can be obtained by two methods: (i) modification of the thickness profile of the radome wall (tapering of radome wall), and (ii) modification of the radome wall configuration. Inhomogeneous dielectric radome wall configurations will be discussed. Moreover, design of a hemispherical radome for a patch antenna using CST Microwave Studio, fabrication of the same in the workshop and the measurement of the antenna- radome in the anechoic chamber to study the antenna- radome interactions will also be discussed.